The 1960 Ethiopian coup was the coup d'etat staged in Ethiopia on 13 December 1960 to overthrow Emperor Haile Selassie. While he was away on a state visit to Brazil, four conspirators, led by Germame Neway and his older brother Brigadier General Mengistu Neway, who was commander of the Kebur Zabangna (the Imperial Bodyguard), took hostage several ministers and other important personages. Then after taking control of most of Addis Ababa, the capital of Ethiopia, they declared the regime of Haile Selassie had been deposed and announced the beginning of a new, more progressive government under the rule of Haile Selassie's eldest son, Crown Prince Asfaw Wossen, that would address the numerous economic and social problems Ethiopia faced. Despite a demonstration of support by the students of Haile Selassie University, the other military units remained loyal and worked together to crush the coup. By 17 December, loyalists had regained control of Addis Ababa and the conspirators were either dead or had fled the capital.
A number of experts of Ethiopian history consider this event the most serious threat to Haile Selassie's rule between his return to Ethiopia in 1941 and his deposition in 1974 during the Ethiopian Revolution.